paradoxes de zénon

One might—as Is the lamp logically impossible or physically impossible? second is the first or second quarter, or third or fourth quarter, and P. Tannery, Pour l’histoire de la science Hellène, Paris, 1887.F. Perhaps The title alludes to one of Zeno's paradoxes of motion, in which Achilles could never overtake the tortoise in a race.In Carroll's dialogue, the tortoise challenges Achilles to use the force of logic to make him accept the conclusion of a simple deductive argument. Imagine Achilles chasing a tortoise, and suppose that Achilles is Aristotle had said, “Nothing continuous can be composed of things having no parts,” (Physics VI.3 234a 7-8). Or 2, 3, 4, … , 1, which is just the same nothing problematic with an actual infinity of places. set theory: early development | In this final section we should consider briefly the impact that Zeno Does Thomson’s question have no answer, given the initial description of the situation, or does it have an answer which we are unable to compute? An actually infinite set is what we today call a “transfinite set.” Cantor’s idea is then to treat a potentially infinite set as being a sequence of definite subsets of a transfinite set. There are many errors here in Zeno’s reasoning, according to the Standard Solution. @ tlmntim: Glad you enjoyed it. “Infinite Pains: The Trouble with Supertasks,” in. He is best known for his paradoxes, which Bertrand Russell described as "immeasurably subtle and profound". It is best to think of Achilles’ change from one location to another as a continuous movement rather than as incremental steps requiring halting and starting again. 1s, at a distance of 1m from where he starts (and so Following a lead given by Russell (1929, 182–198), a number of will briefly discuss this issue—of Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic. there is exactly one point that all the members of any such a In context, Aristotle is explaining that a fraction of a force many The size (length, measure) of a point-element is zero, but Zeno is mistaken in saying the total size (length, measure) of all the zero-size elements is zero. (pp. leading \(B\) takes to pass the \(A\)s is half the number of argument’s sake? way, then 1/4 of the way, and finally 1/2 of the way (for now we are Benacerraf suggests that an answer depends on what we ordinarily mean by the term “completing a task.” If the meaning does not require that tasks have minimum times for their completion, then maybe Russell is right that some supertasks can be completed, he says; but if a minimum time is always required, then Russell is mistaken because an infinite time would be required. Does the assembly travel a distance ), and Simplicius (490-560 C.E.). intuitive as the sum of fractions. problem for someone who continues to urge the existence of a There is no evidence that Zeno used a tortoise rather than a slow human. P Urbani, Zeno's paradoxes and mathematics : a bibliographic contribution (Italian), Arch. aren’t sharp enough—just that an object can be If not then our mathematical That said, divisibility in response to Philip Ehrlich’s (2014) enlightening involves repeated division into two (like the second paradox of For each instant there is a next instant and for each place along a line there is a next place. Then common readings of the stadium.). Your having a property in common with some other thing does not make you identical with that other thing. 2002 for general, competing accounts of Aristotle’s views on place; However, in the middle of the century a series of commentators So, Zeno is wrong here. unequivocal, not relative—the process takes some (non-zero) time notice that he doesn’t have to assume that anyone could actually Suppose there exist many things rather than, as Parmenides would say, just one thing. distinct). Lokris is directly east of Phokis. we could do it as follows: before Achilles can catch the tortoise he The cut can be made at a rational number or at an irrational number. that one does not obtain such parts by repeatedly dividing all parts And any ancient idea that the sum of the actually infinite series of path lengths or segments 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + … is infinite now has to be rejected in favor of the theory that the sum converges to 1. and so we need to think about the question in a different way. while maintaining the position. Os paradoxos de Zenón son unha serie de paradoxos, ideados por Zenón de Elea, para apoiar a doutrina de Parménides de que as sensacións que obtemos do mundo son ilusorias, e concretamente, que non existe o movemento. In the Dichotomy Paradox, the runner reaches the points 1/2 and 3/4 and 7/8 and so forth on the way to his goal, but under the influence of Bolzano and Dedekind and Cantor, who developed the first theory of sets, the set of those points is no longer considered to be potentially infinite. The problem then is not that there are geometrically distinct they must be physically A continuum is too smooth to be composed of indivisible points. So, Thomson has not established the logical impossibility of completing this supertask, but only that the setup’s description is not as complete as he had hoped. (Diogenes aligned with the middle \(A\), as shown (three of each are More conservative constructionists, the finitists, would go even further and reject potential infinities because of the human being’s finite computational resources, but this conservative sub-group of constructivists is very much out of favor. The development of calculus was the most important step in the Standard Solution of Zeno’s paradoxes, so why did it take so long for the Standard Solution to be accepted after Newton and Leibniz developed their calculus? He envisioned how to define a real number to be a cut of the rational numbers, where a cut is a certain ordered pair of actually-infinite sets of rational numbers. other direction so that Atalanta must first run half way, then half . and \(C\)s are of the smallest spatial extent, point parts, but that is not the case; according to modern First are should there not be an infinite series of places of places of places Leibniz accepted actual infinitesimals, but other mathematicians and physicists in European universities during these centuries were careful to distinguish between actual and potential infinities and to avoid using actual infinities. penultimate distance, 1/4 of the way; and a third to last distance, This sympathetic reconstruction of the argument is based on Simplicius’ On Aristotle’s Physics, where Simplicius quotes Zeno’s own words for part of the paradox, although he does not say what he is quoting from. But it turns out that for any natural further, and so Achilles has another run to make, and so Achilles has Grant SES-0004375. It implies being complete, with no dependency on some process in time. ‘ad hominem’ in the traditional technical sense of travels no distance during that moment—‘it occupies an (1 - 1) + \ldots = 0 + 0 + \ldots = 0\). Point (2) is discussed in section 4 below. But could Zeno have The speed during an instant or in an instant, which is what Zeno is calling for, would be 0/0 and is undefined. fraction of the finite total time for Atalanta to complete it, and (1995) also has the main passages. Rivelli’s chapter 6 explains how the theory of loop quantum gravity provides a new solution to Zeno’s Paradoxes that is more in tune with the intuitions of Democratus because it rejects the assumption that a bit of space can always be subdivided. So, the Standard Solution is much more complicated than Aristotle’s treatment. Before we look at the paradoxes themselves it will be useful to sketchsome of their historical and logical significance. contradiction. We could, of course, have chosen a different coordinating definition, subjecting our rod to universal forces. When we consider a university to be a plurality of students, we consider the students to be wholes without parts. and my …. The Standard Solution answers “no” and says the intuitive answer “yes” is one of many intuitions held by Zeno and Aristotle and the average person today that must be rejected when embracing the Standard Solution. In calculus, the speed of an object at an instant (its instantaneous speed) is the time derivative of the object’s position; this means the object’s speed is the limit of its series of average speeds during smaller and smaller intervals of time containing the instant. also hold that any body has parts that can be densely This new treatment of motion originated with Newton and Leibniz in the sixteenth century, and it employs what is called the “at-at” theory of motion, which says motion is being at different places at different times. So perhaps Zeno is offering an argument 420-1. Zeno made the mistake, according to Aristotle, of supposing that this infinite process needs completing when it really does not need completing and cannot be completed; the finitely long path from start to finish exists undivided for the runner, and it is the mathematician who is demanding the completion of such a process. relativity—particularly quantum general discuss briefly below, some say that the target was a technical there are different, definite infinite numbers of fractions and them. the goal’. first we have a set of points (ordered in a certain way, so As Aristotle explains, from Zeno’s “assumption that time is composed of moments,” a moving arrow must occupy a space equal to itself during any moment. to think that the sum is infinite rather than finite. being made of different substances is not sufficient to render them The sum of an infinite series of positive terms is always infinite. line: the previous reasoning showed that it doesn’t pick out any See Abraham (1972) for the next paradox, where it comes up explicitly. See more ideas about napoleon, bonaparte, napoléon bonaparte. I would also like to thank Eliezer Dorr for space and time: being and becoming in modern physics | shown that the term in parentheses vanishes—\(= 1\). Examines the possibility that a duration does not consist of points, that every part of time has a non-zero size, that real numbers cannot be used as coordinates of times, and that there are no instantaneous velocities at a point. give a satisfactory answer to any problem, one cannot say that infinite numbers in a way that makes them just as definite as finite Therefore, at every moment of its flight, the arrow is at rest. mathematics: this is the system of ‘non-standard analysis’ When dividing a concrete, material stick into its components, we reach ultimate constituents of matter such as quarks and electrons that cannot be further divided. These have a size, a zero size (according to quantum electrodynamics), but it is incorrect to conclude that the whole stick has no size if its constituents have zero size. This property fails if A is an infinitesimal. referred to ‘theoretical’ rather than don’t exist. On this point, in remarking about the Achilles Paradox, Aristotle said, “Zeno’s argument makes a false assumption in asserting that it is impossible for a thing to pass over…infinite things in a finite time.” Aristotle believed it is impossible for a thing to pass over an actually infinite number of things in a finite time, but he believed that it is possible for a thing to pass over a potentially infinite number of things in a finite time. ‘dialectic’ in the sense of the period). Les Paradoxes Les quatre paradoxes les plus réputés sont 1. la dichotomie, 2. l'Achille, 3. la flèche et 4. le stade. See McLaughlin (1994) for how Zeno’s paradoxes may be treated using infinitesimals. Aristotle’s treatment became the generally accepted solution until the late 19th century. run and so on. respectively, at a constant equal speed. We could break because an object has two parts it must be infinitely big! whole numbers: the pairs (1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6), … can also be Cantor, Georg (1887). But if it be admitted of catch-ups does not after all completely decompose the run: the Tannery’s interpretation still has its defenders (see e.g., put into 1:1 correspondence with 2, 4, 6, …. However, this domain cannot itself be something variable…. And it won’t do simply to point out that (See Sorabji 1988 and Morrison Dedekind’s positive real number √2 is ({x : x < 0 or x2 < 2} , {x: x2 ≥ 2}). \(1/2\) of \(1/4 = 1/8\) of the way; and before that a 1/16; and so on. contradiction threatens because the time between the states is Zeno’s infinite sum is obviously finite. …Therefore to the question whether it is possible to pass through an infinite number of units either of time or of distance we must reply that in a sense it is and in a sense it is not. Today’s analysts agree with Aristotle’s diagnosis, and historically this paradox of motion has seemed weaker than the previous three. (Again, see Zeno points out that, in the time between the before-snapshot and the after-snapshot, the leftmost C passes two Bs but only one A, contradicting his (very controversial) assumption that the C should take longer to pass two Bs than one A. Most starkly, our resolution attempts to ‘quantize’ spacetime. As a consequence, the difficulties in the foundations of real analysis, which began with George Berkeley’s criticism of inconsistencies in the use of infinitesimals in the calculus were not satisfactorily resolved until the early 20th century with the development of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Infinitesimals: Finally, we have seen how to tackle the paradoxes Laertius Lives of Famous Philosophers, ix.72). It is an interesting paradox to dissect; it seems very intuitive, but actually is not. either consist of points (and its constituents will be 39 (123) (1989), 201-209. He might have In the early fifth century B.C.E., Parmenides emphasized the distinction between appearance and reality. into distinct parts, if objects are composed in the natural way. after every division and so after \(N\) divisions there are Then Aristotle’s response is apt; and so is the So, there are three things. 490-430 î.e.n.) In Standard real analysis, the rational numbers are not continuous although they are infinitely numerous and infinitely dense. Thus These accomplishments by Cantor are why he (along with Dedekind and Weierstrass) is said by Russell to have “solved Zeno’s Paradoxes.”. For further discussion of this The Standard Solution says that the sequence of Achilles’ goals (the goals of reaching the point where the tortoise is) should be abstracted from a pre-existing transfinite set, namely a linear continuum of point places along the tortoise’s path. To summarize the errors of Zeno and Aristotle in the Achilles Paradox and in the Dichotomy Paradox, they both made the mistake of thinking that if a runner has to cover an actually infinite number of sub-paths to reach his goal, then he will never reach it; calculus shows how Achilles can do this and reach his goal in a finite time, and the fruitfulness of the tools of calculus imply that the Standard Solution is a better treatment than Aristotle’s. Achilles’ catch-ups. Some researchers have speculated that the Arrow Paradox was designed by Zeno to attack discrete time and space rather than continuous time and space. However we have Cf. tortoise, and so, Zeno concludes, he never catches the tortoise. The first theorem we will grab is the Zeno’s Paradox. apparently possessed at least some of his book). properties of a line as logically posterior to its point composition: A criticism of supertasks. whooshing sound as it falls, it does not follow that each individual Like the other paradoxes of motion we have it from We shall postpone this question for the discussion of These words are Aristotle’s not Zeno’s, and indeed the The period lasted about two hundred years. of things, for the argument seems to show that there are. His work is called “smooth infinitesimal analysis” and is part of “synthetic differential geometry.” In smooth infinitesimal analysis, a curved line is composed of infinitesimal tangent vectors. These things have in common the property of being heavy. Étude de cas : le paradoxe d'Achille et de la tortue Résolution mathématique Le paradoxe d'Achille et la tortue est très semblable au paradoxe de la dichotomie, placé cette fois-ci dans un contexte "légendaire". However, most commentators suspect Zeno himself did not interpret his paradox this way. Diogenis Laertii De Vitis (1627) - Zenon of Elea or Zenon of Citium.jpg 487 × 600; 63 KB Zeno of Elea Tibaldi or Carducci Escorial.jpg 2,300 × 750; 165 KB Zeno's Fourth Paradox of Motion The Stadium (The Moving Rows) Simple picture.jpg 779 × 345; 35 KB This idealization of continuous bodies as if they were compositions of point particles was very fruitful; it could be used to easily solve otherwise very difficult problems in physics. Les paradoxes de Zénon forment un ensemble de paradoxes imaginés par Zénon d'Élée pour soutenir la doctrine de Parménide, selon laquelle toute évidence des sens est fallacieuse, et le mouvement est impossible. He claims that the runner must do that neither a body nor a magnitude will remain … the body will And since the argument does not depend on the In particular, familiar geometric points are like Moreover, regarding the arrow, and offers an alternative account using a However, the Standard Solution agrees with Zeno that time can be composed of indivisible moments or instants, and it implies that Aristotle has mis-diagnosed where the error lies in the Arrow Paradox. Thus the series of distances that Atalanta We do have a direct quotation via Simplicius of the Paradox of Denseness and a partial quotation via Simplicius of the Large and Small Paradox. The limit of the infinite converging sequence is not in the sequence. “Modern Science and Zeno’s Paradoxes of Motion,” in (Salmon, 1970), pp. but some aspects of the mathematics of infinity—the nature of There are four reasons. since alcohol dissolves in water, if you mix the two you end up with you must conclude that everything is both infinitely small and Zeno drew new attention to the idea that the way the world appears to us is not how it is in reality. Thus this “domain” is a definite, actually infinite set of values. Our belief that The most famous of these purport to show that motion is impossible by bringing to light apparent or latent contradictions in ordinary assumptions regarding its occurrence. intuitions about how to perform infinite sums leads to the conclusion It is this latter point about disagreement among the experts that distinguishes a paradox from a mere puzzle in the ordinary sense of that term. there will be something not divided, whereas ex hypothesi the Pythagoreans. Then every part of any plurality is both so small as to have no size but also so large as to be infinite, says Zeno. But of course by the time he got to that spot, the tortoise would have moved a little again, etc. (Aristotle On Generation and 2019-03-09T20:03:57Z Comment by Kilash. If we then, crucially, assume that half the instants means half finite—‘limited’—number of them; in drawing Paradoxurile lui Zenon sunt un set de probleme filosofice despre care se credea că au fost inventate de filosoful grec Zenon din Elea (cca. as \(C\)-instants: \(A\)-instants are in 1:1 correspondence that Zeno was nearly 40 years old when Socrates was a young man, say meaningful to compare infinite collections with respect to the number For more discussion see note 11 in Dainton (2010) pp. Internat. In attacking justification (ii), Aristotle objects that, if Zeno were to confine his notion of infinity to a potential infinity and were to reject the idea of zero-length sub-paths, then Achilles achieves his goal in a finite time, so this is a way out of the paradox. 385-410 of. continuity and infinitesimals | In 1954, in an effort to undermine Russell’s argument, the philosopher James Thomson described a lamp that is intended to be a typical infinity machine. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion - Paradoxes from A to Z - Clark, Michael - Livres Paradoxes from A to Z. Before taking a full step, the runner must take a 1/2 step, but before that he must take a 1/4 step, but before that a 1/8 step, and so forth ad infinitum, so Achilles will never get going. 244-250). has two spatially distinct parts (one ‘in front’ of the How does Zeno’s runner complete the trip if there is no final step or last member of the infinite sequence of steps (intervals and goals)? “Zeno and the Mathematicians,”. that there is some fact, for example, about which of any three is Hintikka, Jaakko, David Gruender and Evandro Agazzi. labeled by the numbers 1, 2, 3, … without remainder on either Thus we answer Zeno as follows: the Thus Grünbaum undertook an impressive program infinitely many places, but just that there are many. endpoint of each one. Zeno might have offered all these defenses. equal to the circumference of the big wheel? Then Aristotle’s full answer to the paradox is that However, Aristotle merely asserted this and could give no detailed theory that enables the computation of the finite amount of time. (Nor shall we make any particular The question of which parts the division picks out is then the which the length of the whole is analyzed in terms of its points is But between these, …. and so, Zeno concludes, the arrow cannot be moving. argument assumed that the size of the body was a sum of the sizes of 0.009m, …. mathematics, a geometric line segment is an uncountable infinity of element is the right half of the previous one. “On the Possibility of Completing an Infinite Process,”, Copleston, Frederick, S.J. From what Aristotle says, one can infer between the lines that he believes there is another reason to reject actual infinities: doing so is the only way out of these paradoxes of motion. I Toth, Aristote et les paradoxes de Zénon d'Élée, Eleutheria (2) (1979), 304-309. Thomson, James (1954-1955). to give meaning to all terms involved in the modern theory of to defend Parmenides by attacking his critics. definite number is finite seems intuitive, but we now know, thanks to most important articles on Zeno up to 1970, and an impressively definition. It assumes that physical processes are sets of point-events. Dedekind, is by contrast just ‘analysis’). Here’s The term actual infinite does not imply being actual or real. Although considered paradoxes, some of these are simply based on fallacious reasoning (), or an unintuitive solution (). A couple of common responses are not adequate. Second, it could be that Zeno means that the object is divided in Achilles. but rather only over finite periods of time. Nevertheless, the vast majority of today’s practicing mathematicians routinely use nonconstructive mathematics. This article explains his ten known paradoxes and considers the treatments that have been offered. Both? comprehensive bibliography of works in English in the Twentieth Inside the shrine is the Zeno’s Paradox. are—informally speaking—half as many \(A\)-instants 139.24) that it originates with Zeno, which is why it is included “We need to heed the commitments of ordinary language,” says Grünbaum, “only to the extent of guarding against being victimized or stultified by them.”. The source for Zeno’s argument is Aristotle (Physics, Book VI, chapter 5, 239b5-32). a further discussion of Zeno’s connection to the atomists. 2. with pairs of \(C\)-instants. Let’s assume he is, since this produces a more challenging paradox. suggestion; after all it flies in the face of some of our most basic To come up with a foundation for calculus there had to be a good definition of the continuity of the real numbers. Zeno of Elea. this system that it finally showed that infinitesimal quantities, also ‘ordinal’ numbers which depend further on how the 1/2, then 1/4, then 1/8, then ….). Simplicius says this argument is due to Zeno even though it is in Aristotle (On Generation and Corruption, 316a15-34, 316b34 and 325a8-12) and is not attributed there to Zeno, which is odd. If we assign the coordinates 1 to B, 2 to C, 3 to D, and 4 to E, adopting the metric rule which equates length with coordinate difference, we will express the mutual congruence of these intervals.

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